# IGCSE Grade 9 - PHYSICS

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• ##### General Physics
Length and time
Use of rule and measuring cylinders to find length or a volume
Clocks (analog and digital) and devices
Average for small distance and interval of time
Period of pendulum
Micrometer screw gauge
Motion- speed and average speed, speed time graph, distance time graph, acceleration, deceleration
Distinguish between speed and velocity
Linear motion with constant and non-constant acceleration
Acceleration of a freely falling object near to earth
Motion of freely falling body in uniform gravitational field with or without air resistance
Terminal velocity
Mass and weight - mass of a body, weight as a gravitational force
Distinguish between mass and weight
W=mg
Comparison of weights using balance
Property of mass that resist change in motion(inertia)
Gravitational field on a mass
Density, determination of the density of liquids
Regularly and irregularly shaped solids by displacements
Floatation of objects in a liquid medium
Forces - effects of forces
Effect of forces on motion of a body
Resultant of two or more forces
Effect of no resultant force on the motion of the body
Friction and its effects
Air resistance
Hooke's Law
Limit of proportionality
Relation between force mass and acceleration
Motion in circular path - circular motion
Turning effect - torque
Moment of force
Principle of moments
Beam balance
Equilibrium and its conditions
Center of mass
Stability of simple objects
Scalar and vector quantities
Resultant of two vector quantities
Momentum- Momentum and impulse
Equation of momentum(p=mv)
Equation for impulse (Ft = mv - mu)
Principle of conservation of momentum
Types of energies - kinetic, gravitational potential, chemical, elastic, strain, nuclear and internal energy
Transfer of energy
Principle of conservation of energy
Expression for kinetic energy and change in potential energy
Tendency of energy to dissipate
Resources of energy
Electricity from chemical energy
Water energy
Nuclear energy
Wind energy
Solar energy
Energy released during nuclear fusion in sun
Efficiency of energy and power
Work - Relation between work done and energy transferred
Relation between work done and force applied and displacement in the direction of force applied
Power- relation between power work done and time taken
Pressure-relation between pressure force and area
Simple mercury barometer and its uses
Atmospheric pressure
Pressure inside a liquid and its relation to the depth and density of liquid
Manometer
Use of equation p = F / A
• ##### Thermal Physics
Simple kinetic molecular model of matter
states of matter and their properties
molecular model
molecular structure of solid
liquids and gases in terms of separations and motion of molecules
relation between temperature of gas and the motion of its molecules
pressure of gas and motion of its molecules
random motion of particles
kinetic molecular model of matter -Brownian motion
pressure as change in momentum of particles
fast moving molecules
Evaporation
evaporation from the surface of liquid
evaporation and its cooling effects
pressure changes
effect of change of pressure on temperature and volume of gas
PV=Constant(for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature)
Thermal properties and temperature - thermal expansion of solid, liquid and gases
consequences thermal expansion in terms of motion and arrangement of molecules
relative order of magnitude of expansion in different states of matter
measurement of temperature
variation in physical properties with temperature
glass thermometer
sensitivity range and linearity in thermometer
structure of thermocouple and its uses
thermal(heat) capacity
relation between internal energy and temperature
molecular account of an increase in internal energy
thermal capacity = mc
definition of specific heat capacity and experiment to measure it
change in energy = mc *delta(T)
melting and boiling in terms of energy input
melting and boiling point
condensation and solidification
distinguish between boiling and evaporation
latent heat of vaporization
latent heat of fusion
specific latent heats for steam and ice
Thermal processes- Conduction, properties of good and bad thermal conductors
molecular account of conduction
lattice vibration and transfer of electrons
Convection
Convection
density changes in liquids
electromagnetic spectrum
properties of good and bad emitters and absorbers
relation between amount of emission temperature and surface area of a body
consequences of energy transfer
• ##### Properties of Waves
General Wave Properties- Wave transfer energy without transfer of matter,wave motions, wavefront, speed, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, difference between transverse and longitudinal waves, reflection refraction and diffraction of a wave
equation v = f * lambda
relation between diffraction wavelength and gap size
Light- reflection of light
formation of image by plane mirror and its characteristics
laws of reflection
ray diagram for construction of images in plane mirror
refraction of light
laws of refraction
critical angle
internal and total internal reflection
refractive index
uses of optical fibers in medicines and communications technology
thin converging lens
principal focus
focal length
construction of ray diagram for image formation through converging lens
characteristics of image formed from converging lens
magnifying glass, real and virtual images
dispersion of light
refraction of white light from a prism
monochromatic light
Electromagnetic spectrum - wavelength frequency and speed of waves
properties of electromagnetic spectra and their uses
safety issues regarding microwaves and X-rays
speed of electromagnetic waves in vacuum and air
Sound- production of sound
longitudinal nature of sound waves
audible frequencies for healthy human ears
ultrasound
transmission of sound waves
Quality of Sound - loudness, pitch, amplitude, frequency of sound wave
Echo
compression and rarefaction
speed of sound in different materials
• ##### Electricity and Magnetism
Simple phenomena of magnetism- forces between magnets and magnetic materials
induced magnetic
distinguish between magnetic and non-magnetic materials
methods of magnetization
stroking with a magnet
hammering in a magnetic field
magnetic field lines of a bar magnet
magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
distinguish between permanent magnets and electromagnets
magnetic force
methods of demagnetization
Electrical quantities- electric charge and their properties
production and detection of electrostatic charge
measure the amount of charge
electric field and its direction
simple field patterns
charging by induction
distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators
simple electron model
current
flow of charge
analog and digital ammeter
direction of flow of electrons and conventional current
electromotive force and its measurement
potential difference and its measurements
analog and digital voltmeter
resistance
relation between resistance current and potential difference
relationship between resistance of a wire to its length and diameter
ohmic resistor
filament lamp
Electrical working
transfer of energy in an electric circuit
equations P = IV and E = IVt
Electric circuits- draw and interpret circuit diagrams, Series and parallel circuits, current in series and parallel circuits, resultant resistance of series and parallel circuits
advantages for series and parallel circuits
combined e.m.f. of several sources
potential difference and current in series and parallel circuits
uses of circuit components
variable potential divider
thermistors
light dependent resistors
input transducers
relay and switching circuits
diode and rectifier
light-sensitive switches and temperature-operated alarms
Digital electronics- analogue, digital, continuous variation
high/low states
symbols and uses of logical gates simple digital circuits using logical gates
truth tables
Dangers of electricity- damaged insulation, overheating, damp conditions, fuse, circuit breakers, earthing metal cases Electromagnetic effects- induced e.m.f., electromagnetic induction,factors affecting induced e.m.f., direction of induced e.m.f
state the relative direction of force
field and induced current
a.c. generator
distinguish between direct current and alternate current
rotating coil generator
slip rings
graph of voltage output against time for a.c. generator
relation between the position of generator coil to voltage output
transformer
basic transformers
voltage transformers
step-up step-down
transmission of electricity
principle of operation of a transforme
relation between power loss in cables and voltage
magnetic effect of current
pattern and application of magnetic field
strength and direction of magnetic field lines
force on a current-carrying conductor
relative directions of force field and current
d.c. motor
turning effect
split ring commutator
• ##### Atomic Physics
The nuclear atom- structure of atom
scattering of alpha-particles by thin metal foils
composition of nucleus- proton number, nucleon number, nuclide, nuclide rotation
isotope
nuclear fission and fusion
detection - alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays
characteristics and nature of three types of emissions
deflection of alpha, beta, gamma rays in magnetic and electric fields
relative ionizing effects of emissions
practical application of three types of emissions
changes in composition of nucleus during decay
half life
decay curves
safety precautions
effects of ionizing radiations on living things
handling uses and storage of radioactive materials