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  • General Physics
    Length and time
    Use of rule and measuring cylinders to find length or a volume
    Clocks (analog and digital) and devices
    Average for small distance and interval of time
    Period of pendulum
    Micrometer screw gauge
    Motion- speed and average speed, speed time graph, distance time graph, acceleration, deceleration
    Distinguish between speed and velocity
    Linear motion with constant and non-constant acceleration
    Acceleration of a freely falling object near to earth
    Motion of freely falling body in uniform gravitational field with or without air resistance
    Terminal velocity
    Mass and weight - mass of a body, weight as a gravitational force
    Distinguish between mass and weight
    Comparison of weights using balance
    Property of mass that resist change in motion(inertia)
    Gravitational field on a mass
    Density, determination of the density of liquids
    Regularly and irregularly shaped solids by displacements
    Floatation of objects in a liquid medium
    Forces - effects of forces
    Extension-load graph
    Effect of forces on motion of a body
    Resultant of two or more forces
    Effect of no resultant force on the motion of the body
    Friction and its effects
    Air resistance
    Hooke's Law
    Limit of proportionality
    Relation between force mass and acceleration
    Motion in circular path - circular motion
    Turning effect - torque
    Moment of force
    Principle of moments
    Beam balance
    Equilibrium and its conditions
    Center of mass
    Stability of simple objects
    Scalar and vector quantities
    Resultant of two vector quantities
    Momentum- Momentum and impulse
    Equation of momentum(p=mv)
    Equation for impulse (Ft = mv - mu)
    Principle of conservation of momentum
    Types of energies - kinetic, gravitational potential, chemical, elastic, strain, nuclear and internal energy
    Transfer of energy
    Principle of conservation of energy
    Expression for kinetic energy and change in potential energy
    Tendency of energy to dissipate
    Resources of energy
    Electricity from chemical energy
    Water energy
    Nuclear energy
    Wind energy
    Solar energy
    Advantages and disadvantages of different sources of energy
    Energy released during nuclear fusion in sun
    Efficiency of energy and power
    Work - Relation between work done and energy transferred
    Relation between work done and force applied and displacement in the direction of force applied
    Power- relation between power work done and time taken
    Pressure-relation between pressure force and area
    Simple mercury barometer and its uses
    Atmospheric pressure
    Pressure inside a liquid and its relation to the depth and density of liquid
    Use of equation p = F / A
  • Thermal Physics
    Simple kinetic molecular model of matter
    states of matter and their properties
    molecular model
    molecular structure of solid
    liquids and gases in terms of separations and motion of molecules
    relation between temperature of gas and the motion of its molecules
    pressure of gas and motion of its molecules
    random motion of particles
    kinetic molecular model of matter -Brownian motion
    pressure as change in momentum of particles
    fast moving molecules
    evaporation from the surface of liquid
    evaporation and its cooling effects
    pressure changes
    effect of change of pressure on temperature and volume of gas
    PV=Constant(for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature)
    Thermal properties and temperature - thermal expansion of solid, liquid and gases
    consequences thermal expansion in terms of motion and arrangement of molecules
    relative order of magnitude of expansion in different states of matter
    measurement of temperature
    variation in physical properties with temperature
    glass thermometer
    sensitivity range and linearity in thermometer
    structure of thermocouple and its uses
    thermal(heat) capacity
    relation between internal energy and temperature
    molecular account of an increase in internal energy
    thermal capacity = mc
    definition of specific heat capacity and experiment to measure it
    change in energy = mc *delta(T)
    melting and boiling in terms of energy input
    melting and boiling point
    condensation and solidification
    distinguish between boiling and evaporation
    latent heat of vaporization
    latent heat of fusion
    specific latent heats for steam and ice
    Thermal processes- Conduction, properties of good and bad thermal conductors
    molecular account of conduction
    lattice vibration and transfer of electrons
    density changes in liquids
    electromagnetic spectrum
    thermal energy transfer by radiation
    absorption and emission of radiation
    properties of good and bad emitters and absorbers
    relation between amount of emission temperature and surface area of a body
    consequences of energy transfer
  • Properties of Waves
    General Wave Properties- Wave transfer energy without transfer of matter,wave motions, wavefront, speed, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, difference between transverse and longitudinal waves, reflection refraction and diffraction of a wave
    equation v = f * lambda
    relation between diffraction wavelength and gap size
    Light- reflection of light
    formation of image by plane mirror and its characteristics
    laws of reflection
    ray diagram for construction of images in plane mirror
    refraction of light
    laws of refraction
    critical angle
    internal and total internal reflection
    refractive index
    uses of optical fibers in medicines and communications technology
    thin converging lens
    principal focus
    focal length
    construction of ray diagram for image formation through converging lens
    characteristics of image formed from converging lens
    magnifying glass, real and virtual images
    dispersion of light
    refraction of white light from a prism
    monochromatic light
    Electromagnetic spectrum - wavelength frequency and speed of waves
    properties and uses of radiation
    properties of electromagnetic spectra and their uses
    safety issues regarding microwaves and X-rays
    speed of electromagnetic waves in vacuum and air
    Sound- production of sound
    longitudinal nature of sound waves
    audible frequencies for healthy human ears
    transmission of sound waves
    Quality of Sound - loudness, pitch, amplitude, frequency of sound wave
    compression and rarefaction
    speed of sound in different materials
  • Electricity and Magnetism
    Simple phenomena of magnetism- forces between magnets and magnetic materials
    induced magnetic
    distinguish between magnetic and non-magnetic materials
    methods of magnetization
    stroking with a magnet
    hammering in a magnetic field
    magnetic field lines of a bar magnet
    magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
    distinguish between permanent magnets and electromagnets
    magnetic force
    methods of demagnetization
    Electrical quantities- electric charge and their properties
    production and detection of electrostatic charge
    measure the amount of charge
    electric field and its direction
    simple field patterns
    charging by induction
    distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators
    simple electron model
    flow of charge
    analog and digital ammeter
    direction of flow of electrons and conventional current
    electromotive force and its measurement
    potential difference and its measurements
    analog and digital voltmeter
    relation between resistance current and potential difference
    relationship between resistance of a wire to its length and diameter
    ohmic resistor
    filament lamp
    Electrical working
    transfer of energy in an electric circuit
    equations P = IV and E = IVt
    Electric circuits- draw and interpret circuit diagrams, Series and parallel circuits, current in series and parallel circuits, resultant resistance of series and parallel circuits
    advantages for series and parallel circuits
    combined e.m.f. of several sources
    potential difference and current in series and parallel circuits
    uses of circuit components
    variable potential divider
    light dependent resistors
    input transducers
    relay and switching circuits
    diode and rectifier
    light-sensitive switches and temperature-operated alarms
    Digital electronics- analogue, digital, continuous variation
    high/low states
    symbols and uses of logical gates simple digital circuits using logical gates
    truth tables
    Dangers of electricity- damaged insulation, overheating, damp conditions, fuse, circuit breakers, earthing metal cases Electromagnetic effects- induced e.m.f., electromagnetic induction,factors affecting induced e.m.f., direction of induced e.m.f
    state the relative direction of force
    field and induced current
    a.c. generator
    distinguish between direct current and alternate current
    rotating coil generator
    slip rings
    graph of voltage output against time for a.c. generator
    relation between the position of generator coil to voltage output
    basic transformers
    voltage transformers
    step-up step-down
    transmission of electricity
    advantage of high-voltage transmission
    principle of operation of a transforme
    relation between power loss in cables and voltage
    magnetic effect of current
    pattern and application of magnetic field
    strength and direction of magnetic field lines
    force on a current-carrying conductor
    relative directions of force field and current
    d.c. motor
    turning effect
    split ring commutator
  • Atomic Physics
    The nuclear atom- structure of atom
    scattering of alpha-particles by thin metal foils
    composition of nucleus- proton number, nucleon number, nuclide, nuclide rotation
    nuclear fission and fusion
    Radioactivity- detection of radioactivity, background radiation
    detection - alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays
    characteristics and nature of three types of emissions
    deflection of alpha, beta, gamma rays in magnetic and electric fields
    relative ionizing effects of emissions
    practical application of three types of emissions
    radioactive decay
    changes in composition of nucleus during decay
    half life
    decay curves
    safety precautions
    effects of ionizing radiations on living things
    handling uses and storage of radioactive materials
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