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  • Force
    Moment of force and equilibrium - translational and rotational motions, moment of a force, torque, couple, equilibrium of bodies, principle of moments
    Center of gravity - center of gravity of some regular objects, balance point, center of gravity of an irregular lamina
    Uniform circular motion- direction of velocity at any instant in circular path, centripetal and centrifugal force
  • Work, Energy and Power
    Work, Energy and Power, their measurements and units - work, measurement of work, work done by the force of gravity, units of work, Power, measurement of power
    Different forms of energy- mechanical energy and its different forms, potential energy, gravitational potential energy at a height, kinetic energy, conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy and vice versa, different forms of energy, conversion of one form of energy into the other form
    Conservation of energy-principle of conservation of energy, theoretical verification of principle of conservation of energy, application of principle of conservation of energy to a simple pendulum
  • Machines
    Machines, technical terms and levers- machines, load, effort, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio, work output, efficiency, principle of a machine, relationship between efficiency mechanical advantage and velocity ratio, levers, kinds of levers, examples of each types of levers found in human body
    Pulley- pulley, single fixed pulley, single movable pulley, combination of pulleys
  • Refraction of Light at Plane Surfaces
    Refraction, laws of refraction and refractive index- refraction of light, laws of refraction, speed of light in different media, relationship between refractive index and speed of light, principle of reversibility of the path of light, experimental verification of laws of refractions and determination of refractive index of glass, refraction of light through a rectangular glass block, multiple images in a thick plane glass plate or thick mirror
    Refraction of light through prism- prism, refraction of light through a glass prism
    Simple application of refraction of light- real and apparent depth, apparent bending of stick under water, some consequences of refraction of light
    Critical angle and total internal reflection- transmission of light from a denser medium to a rarer medium at different angle of incidence, critical angle, relationship between the critical angle and the refractive index, total internal reflection, total internal reflection in a prism, use of a total internal reflecting prism in place of a plane mirror, some consequences of total internal reflection
  • Refraction Through a Lens
    Lens and refraction of light through a lens- lens, action of a lens as a set of prisms, center of curvature, radius of curvature, principal axis, optical center, principal foci, focal plane, focal length, refraction of light through the equi-convex and equi-concave lenses
    Formation of images by a lens- principal rays for ray diagrams, construction of ray diagram for a lens, characteristics and location of images for a convex lens, characteristics and location of images for a concave lens, difference between the images formed by a convex and concave lens
    Sign convention and lens formula- sign convention of measurement of distances, lens formula, linear magnification, power of a lens
    Magnifying glass and application of lenses- magnifying glass or simple microscope, application of lenses, experimental determination of focal length of a convex lens, to differentiate between a convex and concave lens
  • Spectrum
    Deviation, dispersion and spectrum- deviation produced by a triangular prism, colors of white light with their wavelength and frequency range, dispersion of a white light through a prism and formation of a spectrum
    Electromagnetic spectrum and its broad classification- electromagnetic spectrum, properties and uses of different radiations of electromagnetic spectrum
    Scattering of light and its applications-Scattering of light, soma application of scattering
  • Sound
    Reflection of sound waves and echo- Sound waves, reflection of sound waves, echo, determination of speed of sound by method of echo, use of echoes
    Natural, damped and forced vibrations; Resonance- natural vibrations, damped vibrations, forced vibrations, resonance, some example of resonance
    Characteristics of sound and their subjective and objective nature- characteristics of sound, noise pollutions, music and noise
  • Current Electricity
    Concept of charge, current, potential, potential difference, resistance- concept of charge, concept of current, concept of potential and potential difference, concept of resistance, OHM'S Law, experimental verification of OHM's law, ohmic and non-ohmic resistors, superconductors
    Electromagnetic force-E.M.F, terminal velocity of a cell, internal resistance of a cell. Combination of resistors
    Electrical energy and Power-Electrical energy, measurement of electrical energy, commercial unit of electrical energy, power rating of common electrical appliances, household consumption of electrical energy, heating effect of current
  • Electrical Power and Household Circuits
    Transmission of power and house wiring- transmission of power from the generating station to the consumer, power distribution to a house, house wiring (ring system)
    Some essential components of house wiring systems-fuse, switches, circuits with dual control switches, earthing(grounding), grounding of an appliances, three-pin plug and sockets, colour coding of wires in a cable, high tension wires, safety precautions while using the electricity
  • Electro-Magnetism
    Magnetic effect of electric current- Oested's experiment on the magnetic effect of electric current, magnetic field and field lines due to current in a straight wire, rules to find the direction of magnetic field, magnetic field due to current in a loop, magnetic field due to current carrying cylindrical coil, electromagnet, permanent magnet, comparison of a electromagnet with a permanent magnet, advantages of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet, uses of electromagnet
    Force on a current carrying conductor- force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field and its application in D.C. Motor, Simple D.C. motor
    Electromagnetic Induction-Faraday's Law of electro-magnetic induction, A.C. Generator, frequency of a.c. in household supplies, distinction between an A.C. Generator and D.C. motor, transformer
  • Calorimetry
    Heat capacity- concept of heat, concept of temperature, factors affecting the quantity of heat absorbed to increase the temperature of a body, difference between heat and temperature, thermal capacity, specific heat capacity, distinction between heat capacity and specific heat capacity, specific heat capacity of some common substances, calorimeter, principle of method of mixtures, natural phenomena and consequences of high specific heat capacity of water, some examples of high and low heat capacity
    Change of phase and latent heat- change of state, melting and fusion, heating curve of ice during melting, change in volume on melting, effect of pressure on the melting point, effect of impurities on melting point, vaporization or boiling, heating curve for water, changes in volume on boiling, effect of pressure on boiling point, effect of impurities on boiling point, latent heat and specific latent heat, specific latent heat of fusion of ice, explanation of latent heat of melting on the basis of kinetic model, natural consequences of high specific latent heat of fusion of ice
  • Thermionic Emission and Radioactivity
    Atomic structure and radioactivity- structure of atom and nucleus, atomic model, isotopes, isobars, isotones, radioactivity, radioactivity as emission of alpha, beta and gamma radiations, properties of alpha particles, properties of beta particles, properties of gamma particles, changes within the nucleus in alpha, beta and gamma emission, uses of radioactivity, sources of harmful radiations, harmful effects of radiations, safety procedure while using nuclear energy, background radiations
    Nuclear fission and fusion- nuclear energy, nuclear fission, distinction between radioactive decay and nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, distinction between the nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
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