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  • Cell- The Structural and Functional Unit of Life
    Cells - Basic Study, Types, Shapes
    Gross Structure Of The Cell - Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm And Nucleus
    Finer Structure Of The Cell - The Organelles - Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Ribosome, Lysosomes, Centrosome, Plastids (Chloroplasts), Nucleus, Nucleolus, Chromatin Fibres, Vacuoles And Granules
    Microscopic Examination Of Onion Peel
    The Nucleus - Experiment Of Cell Division
  • Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division
    Structure Of Chromosome - Chromatin Fibres, Discovery, Dna, Histone Protein, Chromatids, Nucleosomes
    Dna - Structure, Macromolecule, Nucleotide, Nitrogenous Bases, Replication, Genes. Cell Division - Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyokinesis, Cytokinesis, Prophase, Interphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Haploid Cells, Diploid Cells
    Cell Cycle - First Growth Phase (G1), Synthesis Phase (S), Second Growth Phase (G2). Significance Of Meiosis - Homologous Pair, Genetic Recombination, Crossing Over, Chiasma Formation, Evolution
  • Genetics-Some Basic Fundamentals
    Genetics - Heredity
    Variation In Population - Characters, Traits, Species
    Chromosome - Karyotype, Chromosome Number, Homologous Chromosome, Autosomes, Sex Chromosome
    Sex Determination - X Chromosome, Y Chromosome, Xx And Xy Combination
    Chromosome as Carriers Of Genes - Genome, Alleles, Rolling Of Tongue, Dominant Alleles, Recessive Alleles
    Genotype And Phenotype - Genetic Constituents, Homozygous Dominant, Heterozygous Dominant, Gametes, Pedigree And Punnett Square
    Sex Linked Inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour Blindness, Recessive Genes, Criss-Cross Inheritance, Hypertrichosis Of Ear
    Mendel's Experiments On Inheritance - Self Pollination, Cross Pollination, Pure Forms, True Breeds, Monohybrid Cross, Dihybrid Cross
    Mendel's Laws Of Inheritance - Law Of Dominance, Law Of Segregation, Law Of Independent Assortment
    Mutation- Sickle Cell Anaemia, Radioactive Radiation
  • Absorption by Roots- The Process Involved
    Absorption By The Roots - Water And Mineral Nutrients
    Need For Water - Photosynthesis, Transpiration, Transportation And Mechanical Stiffness
    Characteristic Of The Roots For Absorbing Water - Surface Area, Cell Sap Concentration, Cell Adaptation, Root Hair, Permeability
    Absorption And Conduction Of Water And Mineral- Imbibition, Diffusion, Osmosis, Active Transport, Passive Transport, Turgidity, Flaccidity, Plasmolysis, Tonicity, Visking Bag Experiments, Isotonic Solution (Isoosmotic), Hypotonic Solution (Hypoosmotic), Hypertonic Solution (Hyperosmotic), Endosmosis, Exosmosis. Root Pressure
    Importance Of Root Hair
    Experiments On Absorption And Conduction Of Water - Girdling Experiment
    Forces Contributing To Ascent Of Sap - Root Pressure, Capillarity, Transpiration Pull, Adhesion, Cohesion
  • Transpiration
    Transpiration And Its Demonstration
    Measurement Of Transpiration - Potometer Methods, Farmer's Potometer, Ganong's Potometer, Darwins Potometer, Garreau's Photometer
    Kinds Of Transpiration And Their Mechanism- Stomatal, Cuticular And Lenticular
    Factors Affecting Transpiration - External Factor such as Sunlight, Temperature, Wind, Humidity, Carbon Dioxide And Atmospheric Pressure, Internal Factors like Water Content Of The Leaves
    Adaptation In Plants To Reduce Excessive Transpiration And Its Significance - Sunken Stomata, Few Stomata, Narrow Leaves, Reduced Exposed Surface, Loss Of Leaves And Thick Cuticle, Cooling Effect, Suction Force, Transpiration Stream
    Guttation And Bleeding - Hydathodes
  • Photosynthesis- Provider of Food for All
    Photosynthesis And Its Importance
    Chlorophyll The Vital Plant Pigment - Chloroplasts, Thylakoids, Stroma, Chlorophyll-A, Chlorophyll-B
    Regulation Of Stomatal Opening For Letting In Carbon Dioxide - Sugar Concentration Theory, K+ Ion Concentration Theory
    Two Main Phases Of Photosynthesis -Light Dependent Phase, Light Independent Phase, Photolysis, Phosphorylation, Photophosphorylation, Polymerisation
    Adaptation In Leaf For Photosynthesis - Large Surface Area, Transparent Cuticle And Upper Epidermis, Veins, Thin Leaf And Their Arrangement
    Factors Affecting Photosynthesis - External Factors like Light Intensity, Carbon Dioxide Concentration, Temperature, Water Content, Internal Factors like Chlorophyll, Protoplasm, Structure Of Leaf
    Experiments On Photosynthesis - Destarch Plant, Test For Starch With Iodine
    Importance Of Photosynthesis
    Carbon Cycle
  • The Circulatory System
    Need For Transport Inside The Body - Digestive System, Respiratory System, Excretory System, Endocrine System
    Fluids In Our Body - Blood, Lymph, Tissue Fluid, Synovial Fluid, Vitreous Humour
    The Blood And Its Function - Colour, Volume, Taste, Transport, Protection, Blood Clot, Engulfing Pathogens, Producing Antibodies
    Composition Of The Blood - Plasma And Cellular Elements - Red And White Cells, Platelets, Thrombocytes, Erythrocyte, Haemoglobin
    Life Cycle Of RBCs
    Origin And Function Of WBCs
    Clotting Of Blood Coagulation - Thrombokinase, Thromboplastin,Factor X, Stuart Factor, Prothrombin, Thrombin, Fibrinogen, Fibrin, Serum, Thrombus
    Blood Transfusion And Blood Group - Blood Groups such as A, B, AB And O, Antigen, Antibody, ABO System, Universal Recipient, Rh Factor
    Blood Circulatory System - The Heart - Cardiac Muscle, Atria, Ventricles, Vena Cava, Pulmonary Artery, Aorta, Coronary Arteries And Veins, Myocardial Infarction
    Valves Of The Heart - Right Atrio-Ventricular Valve or Tricuspid Valve, Chordate Tendinae, Papillary Muscle, Left Atrio-Ventricular Valve or Bicuspid Or Mitral Valve, Pulmonary Semilunar Valves, Aorta Semilunar Valves
    Circulation Of Blood In The Heart
    Heart Beat
    Blood Vessels -Artery, Vein And Capillary
    The Two Blood Circulations - Pulmonary, Systemic
    Hepatic Portal System
    The Pulse - Blood Pressure
    Tissue Fluid And Lymph
    Examination Of Blood Corpuscles Under A Microscope
  • The Excretory System
    Substances To Be Got Rid Off - Carbon Dioxide, Little Water, Nitrogenous Metabolic Waste, Excess Salts, Vitamins And Bile Pigments
    The Excretory Organs- Kidney, Sweat Glands And Lungs
    Kidneys - Internal Structure Of The Kidney, Blood Supply
    Functions Of Kidney - Ultrafiltration, Reabsorption
    Constituents Of Urine
    Regulation Of Urine Output
    Artificial Kidney
  • The Nervous System
    Need Of Nervous System
    Neuron And Its Structure - Cell Body, Dendrites And Axon
    Neurons- Sensory Neurons, Motor Neurons And Association Or Connecting Neurons
    Nerves - Sensory Nerve, Motor Nerves, Mixed Nerves
    Two Major Division Of The Nervous System - Central Nervous System, Peripheral
    Somatic Nervous System - Cranial Nerves And Spinal Cord
    Autonomic Nervous System - Sympathetic And Parasympathetic System
    The Brain -Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Medulla Oblongata
    The Spinal Cord
    Peripheral Nervous System
    Reflexes -Involuntary Actions And Voluntary Action
    The Sense Organs
    The Eye - Structure and Function
    Common Defects in eye - Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism, Preshyopia, Cataract, Night Blindness, Colour Blindness
    The Ear Function and Structure - Outer Ear, Middle Ear And Inner Ear
  • Endocrine Glands- The Producers of Chemical Messengers
    Need For The Regulation Of Body Activities
    General Properties Of Hormones
    Endocrine Glands And Its Function
    Adrenal Glands - Adrenaline, Cortisone, Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids
    Pancreas - Islet Of Langerhans, Insulin, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes Mellitus, Glucagon, Somatostatin
    Thyroid - Thyrosin, Goitre, Cretinism, Myxoedema
    Pituitary - Growth Hormone Or Somatotropin, Dwarfism, Gigantism, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Gonad Stimulating Hormone, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Antidiuretic Hormone or Vasopressin, Diabetes Insipidus, Oxytocin
    Control Of Hormonal Secretion
  • The Reproductive System
    Patterns Of Reproduction - Asexual And Sexual Reproduction
    Reproduction In Humans. Male Reproductive System - Testes, Scrotum, Seminiferous Tubules, Spermatogenesis, Interstitial Cells (Leydig Cells), Testosterone, Epididymis, Sperm Duct or Vas Deferens, Inguinal Canal, Accessory Glands, Seminal Vesicle, Prostate Gland, Bulbo Urethral Gland, Penis, Urethra
    Female Reproductive System - Ovaries -Graafian Follicle, Oogenesis, Ovulation, Corpus Luteum, Oestrogen, Progesterone, Oviducts - Fallopian Tubes, Oviducal Funnel, Uterus - Cervix, Vagina- Hymen, Vulva - Labia Minora, Labia Majora, Clitoris
    Menstrual Cycle - Menarche, Menopause, Menstrual Phase, Follicular Phase, Ovulatory Phase, Luteal Phase
    Fertilization. Sperm - Acrosome, Tail, Haploid
    Implantation And Pregnancy - Placenta, Amnion, Parturition
  • Population- The Increasing Numbers and Rising Problems
    World Population Through The Ages
    Rapid Rise In Population. Population Explosion - A Serious Global Concern
    A Highly Simplified Model Of Population Growth
    Population In India
    Factors Responsible For Population Explosion In India
    Rising Population - Pressure In Natural Resources - Food, Water, Land, Forests, Energy
    Urbanisation Causing Serious Pressure On Resources- Changing Face Of The Earth, Rising Living Standards Of Growing Population, Need To Check Exploitative Use Of Resources
    Rate Of Population Growth Must Be Reduce - Demography, Population Density, Birth Rate (Natality), Death Rate (Mortality)
    Need For Adapting Control Measures - Population Education And Population Control
    Methods Of Contraceptions - Condoms, Diaphragms, Sperm Killing Agents, Intra Uterine Device, Tubectomy, Vasectomy, Abortion
  • Aids to Health
    Immunity - Local Defence System - Skin, Hairs, Mucus, Coughing, Germ Killing Secretion, WBCs
    Kinds Of Immune System- Innate Immunity - Specific And Non Specific Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity - Actively And Passively Acquired Immunity
    Vaccination And Immunisation. Antitoxins
    Antiseptic And Disinfectants
    Sulphonamide Group Of Medicine
    First Aid
  • Health Organisations
    Common Health Problems In India
    Food And Water Borne Diseases - Diarrhoea, Gastroenteritis, Typhoid And Dysentery, Common Insect And Air Borne Diseases - Tuberculosis, Whooping Cough, Pneumonia And Diarrhoea
    Lack Of Medical Facilities
    Categories Of Health Organisations. Local Bodies - Sanitation, Supply Of Safe Drinking Water, Vaccination, Statistical Records
    National Bodies
    International Bodies - Red Cross, World Health Organisation
  • Pollution- A Rising Environmental Problem
    Air Pollution And Its Type - Gaseous And Particulate Pollution, Sources Of Air Pollution - Vehicular Air Pollution, Industrial Air Pollution, Burning Garbage, Brick Kilns
    Water Pollution - Household Detergents, Sewage, Industrial Wastes, Oil Spills, Thermal Pollution
    Soil Pollution - Industrial Waste, Urban Commercial And Domestic Waste, Chemical Fertilizers, Biomedical Waste, Pesticides, Radiations
    Noise Pollution - Harmful Effects
    Effects Of Various Types Of Pollution - Human Health, Climate And Environment, Acid Rain, Green House Effect And Global Warming, Ozone Layer Depletion
    Abatement Of Pollution
  • Featured Test